1970s Assessment Questions

1. What issues influenced Americans’ opinions of the War in Vietnam?
ANSWER: There were many issues that influenced Americans' opinions of the war in Vietman. The first was the draft. Many innocent and young soldiers were forced to fight in the war due to the draft, Second were the high death tolls. There were approximately 58,000 American soldiers that were killed in action. There were another 200,000 that were injured in battle. The third issue was that the enemy kept on fighting. The enemy had a strong urge to keep fighting and did not give up, which caused a great deal of conflict. The fourth issue was that something similar to the yellow journalism was happening. Yellow journalism occurred during World War II when the media published untrue stories and images. The media was contradicting the government. Another reason was that the South Vietnamese citizens were forced to join the Vietcong. This caused turmoil and an issue. All of these issues influenced Americans' opinions of the War in Vietnam.

2. “Doves” opposed the war in Vietnam on the following grounds
A. Vietnam was not crucial to national security
B. fear that the U.S. would resort to using nuclear weapons in Vietnam
C. the U.S. was fighting against the wishes of the majority of Vietnamese.
D. all war is wrong
E. all of the above

3. One of the practical reasons for protesting the Vietnam War was the belief that
A. the war could not be won
B. no country has the right to interfere in the government of another
C. the Vietnamese people had suffered unfairly
D. the logic driving the Cold War was fundamentally unsound.

4. What were the results of the Vietnam War?
ANSWER: After the Vietnam War, many changes occurred. One of these changes was that the United States promised to help rebuild Vietnam to its former glory. Also, they promised to withdraw the many troops they sent from South Vietnam. Furthermore, President Richard Nixon promised, in secret, the South Vietnamese government that the United States would send aid if fighting continued in Vietnam. Another result of the war happened two years after the United States fell back from South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese government collapsed, and North Vietnam's plentiful amount of troops stampeded into the South. When the remaining South Vietnamese citizens and soldiers withdrew to Saigon, the United States was forced to withdraw its many soldiers it had remaining in the city before North Vietnam overcame the south.The South ended up surrendering on April 30, 1975. Furthermore, 185,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died along with 500,000 South Vietnamese citizens. Two million Americans fought in Vietnam. 2500 went missing. These are the results of the Vietnam War.

5. Why did the United States reject North Vietnam’s peace plan in October 1972?
A. it called for a pullout of all foreign troops
B. it called for the United States to take full blame for the war
C. it did not include plans for a cease fire
D. it would have meant a loss of power for South Vietnam’s president

6. Richard Nixon's strategy for ending American involvement in the Vietnam War entailed
A. immediate withdrawal of all American combat troops and a formal surrender
B. turning the war over to the South Vietnamese army after an appropriate period of military training
C. involving the United Nations in a peacekeeping role before American withdrawal from the region
D. using nuclear weapons to weaken the North Vietnamese prior to American withdrawal
E. giving the North American Treaty Organization primary responsibility for continuing the war against the communists in the North

7. Describe the long-term significance of the war in Vietnam.
ANSWER:After the war in Vietnam, the entire country unified under a communist rule. It became an independent country again. Furthermore, Cambodia and Laos, Vietnam's neighboring countries, suffered damage. Americans became infuriated that the government had lied about the events of the war. Many veterans also developed sickly diseases at high rates such as cancer. This was because of the exposure to Agent Orange. These veterans' children also developed a risk of a birth defect due to this Agent Orange. These chemical weapons left the Vietnamese sickened and wasted by liver cancer and multiple other diseases. The worst part, in my personal opinion, was that the veterans were not celebrated as heroes of war, because the United States lost the war. They became subject to the many citizens' furies. But, on a positive note, the war disproved the Domino Theory that all of Southeast Asia would fall to communism.

8. What were President Nixon’s foreign policy achievements and mistakes?
ANSWER: Achievements- moved the US troops out of vietnam war, mended relations with China, tried to ease tensions between the "supper countries"
mistakes- tended to ignore domestic policies, reduced federal well fare, brought countries into the vietnam war that were originally neutral

9. One of President Nixon's most important diplomatic initiatives was to
A. reunite Vietnam
B. open diplomatic relations between China and the United States.
C. establish a forum for discussions of human rights
D. pressure China to recognize Taiwan
E. end the Cold War

10.Why and how did Republican President Richard Nixon expand the liberal reforms of previous administrations?
ANSWER: there was an economic crisis which Nixon tried to fix by freezing wages and prices, Nixon favored "law and order" over civil liberties, nixon made some plans like the Environmental Protection Agency, and the trying to replace the well fare system which failed

11.What was the Arab oil embargo of 1973? How did it negatively affect the U.S.?
ANSWER: OPEC announced that Arab was cutting production and placing an embargo on oil to western countries. Prices on oil sky-rocketed due the embargo. It greatly damaged the U.S. economy. U.S. became aware of how dependent they were on OPEC.
Gas line during Embargo.

12.How did the American people respond to the Watergate scandal?
ANSWER: Richard Nixon and his abuses of power damaged the faith that Americans held within politicians. Americans felt a severe mistrust in politicians that did not exist prior to Nixon and the Watergate scandal. The admirable view of the President was permanently changed.

13.The Watergate scandal reshaped the relationship between politicians and the media. Nixon's cover-up of his own involvement in the scandal resulted in
A. his impeachment
B. his resignation
C. a demonstration of how the three branches of government work together for the same political goal
D. the loss of the trust of the American people and a Democratic landslide in the next general elections
E. All of the above

14.Why were the Equal Rights Amendment and the policy of affirmative action such controversial topics in the 1970s?
ANSWER: Affirmative Action brought charges of so-called reverse discrimination in the late 1970s.
It was only after it was put before the states for ratification in 1972 that the amendment became a burning political issue, with feminists trying to influence state legislators and public officials in its favor, and conservatives working against ratification.

15.The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was defeated because
A. Congress would not pass it
B. it was held to be unconstitutional.
C. not enough state legislatures passed it.
D. Betty Friedan opposed it
E. Richard Nixon vetoed it.


16.How and why did the energy crisis and the Middle East pose significant challenges for President Carter?
ANSWER: Faced with severe winter weather and a natural gas shortage, forcing schools and factories to close temporarily.
The President proposed an Emergency Natural Gas Act to create a more equitable distribution of Natural Gas.
The Carter's Energy Plan took eighteen months for the for the bill to be passed by the Senate.
OPEC continued to assert its dominance by reducing oil production, which caused prises to rise by more than 50% in six months.

17.In response to the nation’s dependence on foreign oil, President Carter established the
A. Department of Energy
B. Department of Health and Human Services
C. Energy Protection Agency
D. Bureau of Energy Conservation


18.The U.S. economy in the late 1970s was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A. low interest rates
B. oil shortages and increased oil prices
C. massive layoffs of workers
D. runaway inflation rates
E. recession